Yes, it is good. Again, identifying Althea will help it.
If it is abbreviated more, make sure to include the section on The
House of the Lord Pentecostal Church.
FACETS OF PENTECOSTAL
SPIRITUALITY AND JUSTICE
by Anthea Butler (slightly
"In order to provide an overview of what
Spirituality and Justice means in the Pentecostals' community and
context, three areas of inquiry will be discussed. These are
Theological, Historical, and Praxis. The Theological section will
consist of the Biblical basis for Pentecostal Spirituality and
Justice, the Historical area will address the unique situation in
which Pentecostalism developed, and Praxis will show how
Pentecostals in various areas practice Spirituality and Justice. The
intended result is to provide specific areas for dialogue, and
provide some explanation of what comprises Pentecostal Spirituality
The theological underpinnings of
a Pentecostal of Spirituality and Justice hinges upon the New
Testament's fulfilment of the Old Testament foreshadowing of the
outpouring of the Holy Spirit. Jesus proclamation of Luke 4: 18-19
from the Old Testament Text of Isaiah 61:1-2 exemplifies the work of
the Spirit to energize spiritually and bring about justice:
"The Spirit of the Lord is upon me, because
He has anointed me to bring good news to the poor. He has sent me to
proclaim release to the captives, and recovery of sight to the
blind, to let the oppressed go free, to proclaim the year of the
Lord's Favor." (New Revised Standard Version)
Through the agency of the Holy Spirit, Jesus is to
preach the good news to the poor. The Holy Spirits impartation is
also concerned with Justice. Anointing in this case is not simply an
anointing for spiritual prowess, it is for social action as well.
The Poor are those who are helpless and defenseless, the
economically poor, the poor in Spirit. The good news is that help is
available to all. (1)
There is no differentiation between what is economic poverty and
poverty of spirit. Poor means poor. The encounter with the Spirit
enabled Jesus to be concerned with every type of injustice -
spiritual and social. The poor, prisoners, the blind, and oppressed
are a cross section of the society in which Jesus lived. Gordon Fee,
New Testament scholar writes:
Global Mission (Pentecostals) therefore, is rooted ultimately in
Jesus' application of Isaiah 53 and Isaiah 61:1-2 to himself. He
himself bought in the time of the End, the 'year of the Lord's
favor' in which the good news to the poor meant release for captives
of all kinds. He was anointed by the Holy Spirit precisely for such
a mission: and he in turn poured out the Spirit on His disciples so
that they might continue the same mission.
This concern is also imparted to
the disciples on the Day of Pentecost. The same spirit that anoints
Jesus also anoints the disciples for service as well. The Pentecost
narrative is the story of the transfer of the charismatic spirit
from Jesus to the disciples. Having become the exclusive bearer of
the Holy Spirit at His baptism, Jesus becomes the giver of the
Spirit at Pentecost. By this transfer of the Spirit, the disciples
become heirs and successors to the earthly charismatic ministry of
"All of the were filled
with the Holy Spirit and began to speak in other languages as the
Spirit gave them ability...
All who believed were together and had all things uncommon; they
would sell their possessions and goods and distribute the proceeds
to all, as any had need.
The outpouring of the Holy Spirit results not only
in glossolalia, but an awareness of other's needs. Provision is made
for those who have less than others. The poor are the first priority
of the infilling of the Spirit. The Spirit is not only for inward
blessing, it is also for outward service to those in the world.
The Eschatology of Pentecostals also affects
Pentecostal motifs of Spirituality and Justice. Emphasis is placed
on the imminent return of Christ, (see Joel 2:24) where the
outpouring of the Spirit in the last days signals the return of
Christ. Therefore, social justice is not only to seek justice, it is
in preparation for the imminent return of Christ. If the Kingdom of
God is at hand, then Pentecostals are representatives of that
Kingdom and as such, are responsible for doing "kingdom
things". The activities of God's kingdom, caring for the poor
and widows, visiting those in prison, opposing injustice, are all
part of preparation for Christ's return. Although Pentecostals are
inclined at times to downplay the importance of service because of
the imminence of Christ's return, they engage in justice issues as
part of their spiritual calling by God.
Pentecostalism also finds Spirituality and Justice
roots in the Wesleyan/Holiness tradition in 19th century America and
England. The Holiness movement emphasized the baptism with the Holy
Spirit as endument for service. The "Power" was connected
by preachers and writers of the Holiness tradition with Christian
service and testimony.
(6) The impartation of the Spirit in Holiness theology was
not to speak in tongues, but to spread the gospel and provide for
those who had physical as well as spiritual need. Since many who
entered the Pentecostal movement had been involved with the Holiness
movement as well, the Baptism of the Holy Spirit was the
confirmation of their call to service. The call was not just a call
to ordination, but to Christian service. The Holy Spirit, therefore
is the agent for the empowerment to serve. The Spirit is interpreted
as concern for people in need. The spiritual gifts of service and
outreach in Romans 12:4-8 show that serving, contributing, and mercy
are Spirit powered activities of the believer to benefit both
believers and non believers.
definition of Spirituality and Justice for Pentecostals cannot be
separated from the work of the Holy Spirit. The baptism of the Holy
Spirit not only benefits spiritual life, but empowers people to
effectively minister to the poor, downtrodden, and oppressed. The
result of the Spirit's outpouring has affected Pentecostal
historical development in Spirituality and Justice.
The Azusa street revival is perhaps the best known event in
Pentecostalism. The revival that began in Los Angeles, California in
April of 1906 had an enormous impact in spreading the Pentecostal
movement around the world. The revival centered upon the outpouring
of the Holy Spirit manifesting itself in not only Spiritual uplift,
but also confronting social justice issues of the times. The founder
of the Azusa street mission was William J. Seymour, an African
American whose parents were slaves. He began the mission with a
group of working class African Americans, who received the Baptism
of the Holy Spirit at a Bible study Seymour led.
(8) As word of the outpouring grew, Seymour acquired
property at Azusa Street, and the revival began to spread. People
from all social classes were attracted to the Mission.
prayed that Pentecost might come to the city of Los Angeles. We
wanted it to start in the First Methodist Church, but God did not
start it there. I bless God that he did not start it in any church
in this city, but in a barn , so that we might all come and take
part in it. If it had started in a fine church, poor colored people
and Spanish people would not have got it, but praise God it started
In a time where racial segregation was the law in the United States,
Seymour's leadership of the Azusa street mission exemplified the
work of the Spirit to bring about equality from inequality,
acceptance from rejection, and empowerment from subjugation.
Seymour's theology and praxis centered in the work of the Holy
Spirit called for the equality of all people. The ecumenical nature
of Azusa Street Fellowship was also important for Seymour's
understanding of the work of the Holy Spirit.
Pentecostal movement is too large to be confined in any denomination
or sect. It works outside, drawing all together in one bond of Love,
one church, one body of Christ."
From such an auspicious beginning, those who came
through the Azusa street mission left Los Angeles for the mission
fields or their hometowns. As the Pentecostal movement spread,
leaders in the early portion of the 20th century continued the quest
to integrate Spirituality and Justice. Bishop Charles Harrison
Mason, founder of the Church of God in Christ, ordained whites as
well as blacks within his denomination.
(11) During World War I, Mason was placed under
surveillance and arrested by what is now the Federal Bureau of
Investigation for simply preaching the COGIC doctrine that precluded
participation in war.
believe the shedding of human blood or taking of human life to be
contrary to the teaching of our Lord and Savior, and as a body, we
are averse to war in all its various forms."
The United States government chose to see COGIC's
doctrinal stance as seditious and contrary to the war efforts.
Bishop Mason was subsequently arrested, but released and not
prosecuted. Mason relates his trial with the government in his own
Ghost through me was teaching men to look to God, for He is their
only help. I told them not to trust in the power of the United
States, England, France or Germany, but to trust in God."
Other Pentecostals worked within their communities
to help those who were in need. Aimee Semple McPherson, founder of
the International Church of the Foursquare Gospel, established a
commissary in Los Angeles in 1927, subsequently feeding over 1.5
million people during the Depression era.
(15) The commissary was established on the basis of James
1:27: "Pure religion and undefiled before God is this, to visit
the fatherless and the widow in their affliction." (16)
The commissary provided food and clothing to all in need. In
addition to the commissary, a dining hall was established in 1931 to
serve lunches to unemployed men, women and children.
(17) McPherson, whose dynamic persona and healing ministry
captivated the masses and garnered censure from other ministers and
skeptical press, preached the complete gospel to meet all the needs
of each individual, spiritual or material. She encouraged women to
pursue ministry, appointed them to offices within the denomination,
and ordained women.
(18) Despite her celebrated disappearance and colorful
ministry, McPherson was a socially concerned, spiritually centered
woman who did not distance herself from any class of people.
Although these are only a few examples of early
Pentecostal attitudes toward Spirituality and Justice, the
egalitarian spirit of Azusa Street did not last, at least in the
United States. Most Pentecostal denominations split along racial
lines. Women who were initially allowed to preach were
systematically denied ordination. In the quest to erase their
impoverished past, denominational leaders sought to legitimize
Pentecostal beliefs by emulating mainline denominations. Pursuing
respectability, some Pentecostals lost their fervor for
righteousness and the Spirit. They accommodated the culture by
accepting segregation, separating themselves from the poor,
separating their worship, and becoming the oppressor instead of the
Several Pentecostal denominations in the United
States established the Pentecostal Fellowship of North America in
1948. Feeling the need to have their own unified group, they set out
to create an organization to spawn cooperative fellowship.
(19) Yet the PFNA restricted their membership to
predominantly white denominations and rebuffed overtures from the
Church of God in Christ and other non white denominations applying
for membership. (20)
The PFNA was finally dissolved in 1994 at the Racial Reconciliation
conference in Memphis, Tennessee. The new organization, Pentecostal
and Charismatic Churches of North America, is now open to all
Pentecostal denominations in North America.
North America was not the only place where
Pentecostals acted in unjust ways, hiding behind spiritual lenses.
The Apostolic Faith Mission of South Africa, the church from where
celebrated Ecumenist David Du Plessis belonged, was a supporter of
the apartheid government of South Africa.
(21) Activist Frank Chickane's struggles with the AFM led
him to make this remark about the church:
within my church meant that highly spiritual people who were
baptized in the Holy Spirit could see no Christian obligation to
struggle against apartheid. Nor did they have any regard for social
ethics. Their concern was that my analysis smacked of what is called
the social gospel within evangelical circles."
In describing what the Praxis of Pentecostal
Spirituality and Justice consists of, the Korean term "Minjung"
is helpful. Minjung means in Korean 'mass of the people' or the
These are the everyday people, the ones who suffer and work
constantly, struggling on a day to day basis. When evangelists came
to Korea and began to work with the Minjung, they soon realized that
they were not getting through to the Koreans. Their language and
perceptions of life were different from those they sought to
convert. In order to communicate, they had to live and work with the
Minjung, to live as they did. The Minjung began to show the
missionaries by re-reading the Bible, that the Gospel is for the
Minjung: the poor, weak, the lowest, the crippled, blind, and
captive. The mission workers discovered the reality of the Minjung
in the Bible, their place in the justice and compassion of God.
Minjung, or the masses of the people is a way of
thinking about how Pentecostals practise Spirituality and Justice.
Although people from many different social locations and
geographical locales may call themselves Pentecostal, any
Pentecostal at any time could be a member of the Minjung - the
downtrodden. Socio-cultural alienation, economic exploitation, and
political suppression are all aspects of being a part of the Minjung.
(25) Pentecostals in various locales practise Minjung
Spirituality and Justice. What is important to Pentecostal Praxis is
that the individual needs are first and foremost focus of Justice
through Spirituality. Those needs may include, but are not limited
to, food, clothing, shelter money, health concerns, job concerns,
family issues, finances and others. The next layer of Spiritual
Justice issues focuses on oppression of individuals and groups in
the community. Examples are racism, sexism, and class schisms.
Finally, political and world issues would occupy the last sphere of
Pentecostal Spirituality and Justice. How these spheres work in
different Pentecostal churches depend on their locale and emphasis.
Two examples that are representative of Pentecostal pursuits of
Spirituality and Justice come from very different Pentecostal
churches in the United States.
Angeles: The City of Angels Burn for Justice
No one can forget the arresting pictures that came
from the April 1992 riots after the jury acquitted of the Los
Angeles Police officers that had beaten Rodney King on tape. South
Central Los Angeles burned on televisions around the world, a stark
reminder of the oppression and pain that the citizens of the
community, Black and Hispanic, had been made to bear at the hands of
the LAPD. Scenes of looting and burning flooded our screens, while
elderly people and families in the community cringed in their homes,
hoping that the onslaught of violence would cease. The end result
was millions of dollars of damage and over fifty lives lost. The
Church on the Way, a Foursquare church in Van Nuys, responded to the
call. Pastor Jack Hayford organized a food and clothing drive in
partnership with West Angeles Church of God in Christ, pastored by
Bishop Charles Blake. While Church on the Way is a suburban church
approximately twenty minutes from South Central, West Angeles COGIC
is located right in the middle of the devastated areas of South
Central. With the help of the Church on the Way congregation, four
semi trucks containing food and clothing were loaded and shipped to
West Angeles to distribute in the community, along with over
$100,000 to meet the needs of individuals of South Central. In
addition, a racial reconciliation service was held six weeks
afterwards, with both black and white congregations coming together
to worship and heal the wounds. Later that summer, a team of Church
on the Way members spent a week living and working in South Central
to repair damages and repair relationships.
House of the Lord Pentecostal Church
Across the United States in
Brooklyn, New York, is The House of the Lord Pentecostal Church.
Pastored by Rev. Herbert Daughtry, The House of the Lord is a
dynamic, economically and socially stable African American
The church defies conventional definitions by receiving government
grants, pursuing political activism, serving on various local
political committees, and strongly emphasizing a holy lifestyle. The
House of the Lord has been involved in the building of 500 homes in
the Brooklyn area, and provides apartment housing for Aids victims
though the Association for Brooklyn clergy, an alliance that Rev.
Daughtry chairs. (27)
Within the statement of faith, The House of the Lord Pentecostal
Church commitment to spirituality and justice issues is evident.
the new member becomes biblically strong, Spiritually stable, and
life becomes meaningful and abundant for him, his reponsibility
still does not cease. In Matthew 20: 26-28, we read 'It shall not
be so among you; but whoever would be first among you must be your
slave; even as the Son of Man came not to be served but to serve
and give his life as a ransom for many.' We believe a person's
spiritual growth does not cease with his having been saved and
matured. There must also come the fulfilling of institutional
responsibilities as well as other missions and responsibilities in
life. This growth includes witnessing, ministering to, and serving
others. These things can be done through the following outreach
programs: Campuses, Coffee Houses, Door to Door ministry, home
Bible classes, hospitals, media, Mass Evangelism, Prisons,
Programs, Protest, Street evangelism, and Special service
Spirituality and Justice issues are integral to
the praxis in The House of the Lord Church. Protest is considered to
be as important as evangelization. In December 1987, Rev. Daughtry
led a blockade of the Brooklyn Bridge and New York city transit
lines to call attention to acts of violence and institutionalized
violence against Blacks in New York.
(29) The church's involvement in political, social and
spiritual issues is a wholistic environment that embodies the action
of the Holy Spirit to mobilize and energize the church. This is
carried out in the church services, where women and men play equal
roles in the service. Spiritual gifts are manifest and evident, and
issues of justice and equality preached from the pulpit.
(30) The church exemplifies the example for linking
Spirituality and Justice issues in Pentecostalism. The Holy Spirit
not only energizes spiritual life, it directly confronts the
Principles and Powers of the age. By working together as a
congregation and a community, effective change is achieved.
The issues surrounding Pentecostal Spirituality and justice might be
summed up in an anecdote form a chronicler of the Pentecostal
movement, Dr. Walter Hollenweger. On a teaching trip to Fuller
Seminary in 1993, a Black church in the Los Angeles area, First AME,
was the intended victim of a bombing plot by two white supremacist
teens. They were arrested a few days before attempting to bomb the
church to create a "Race War". Dr. Hollenweger, upon
visiting a Pentecostal Church the following Sunday, hoped he would
hear a denunciation of this behavior from the pulpit. Instead, he
heard a sermon about the evils of Pornography. Taken aback, he said
the next day in class "You Pentecostals are so concerned with
the sins of the flesh that you are not concerned with any other
Unfortunately, there is truth in this statement.
Our concerns for personal holiness and abstinence from
"sinful" behavior prevent us from seeing the larger
structural oppression of sin in the world. The sectarian nature of
Pentecostals prevents individual churches and denominations from
reaching out to confront the issues. In the quest to maintain
holiness and purity before God, we have systematically ignored
larger issues of human rights, such as torture, mass killings, rapes
and other acts of violence perpetrated on non-Pentecostals. It is
difficult to find a policy statement in most Pentecostal churches or
denominations on issues of ethnic cleansing in Bosnia-Hertzegovina,
the slaughter in Rwanda, or child prostitution in Asia. These issues
may get cursory prayers in our churches, but we must become
pro-active in these areas in order to accomplish what the Holy
Spirit is really requiring of us.
Pentecostal praxis of Spirituality and Justice is
driven at times by proselytizing motives, rather than the simplicity
of provision for those in need. We need not hold out assistance in
one hand and our religious agendas in the other. Our churches in
North America, despite racial reconciliation conferences, remain
segregated, and our denominational leaders continue to conduct
business as usual. Advent into the political system is not driven by
the need of the Minjung, it is driven by dreams of personal power
and individual agendas other that the Kingdom of God. Ecological
concerns extend to our taking out the trash daily, with no
appreciation for the creation of God. Human Sexuality, especially
Homosexuality, is only discussed in negative language and
prohibitions rather than thoughtful appraisal and careful
discernment. Aids is seen as judgment, rather than illness that
needs healing. Our silence on these issues is deafening at times,
and disappointing. It has largely been left to ethnic churches,
Urban churches and Third World Pentecostals to address Spirituality
and Justice needs of communities.
(31) Despite many mainline Pentecostal denominations
social programs, their resolve to dig deeper and confront the issues
have been marginal.
So what is the answer for us?
Our Forbearers understood the times, that the days were evil. They
understood that they had to continue the work, while there was still
light, because the darkness was rapidly approaching. Pentecostals
are at a turning point. We will either continue to be sectarian, or
we will allow ecumenical conversations to help us appreciate the
best parts of our interpretation of Spirituality and Justice, and
improve what we are lacking. Pentecostals have a rich tradition of
Spirituality and a rich tradition of social justice, but it is not
consistent over time. It is situational, and subject to change. With
the help of the Holy Spirit, we must continue to refine both areas
equally, working toward the example of Jesus, who came that we might
have life, and life more abundantly."
1. Gordon Fee,
The Church's Global Mission in: Called and
Empowered, editors: Murray Dempster, Byron Klaus, and Douglas
Petersen. Massachusetts, Hendrickson Publishing, 1991, p. 12-13
2. Ibid, p. 18
Roger, The Charismatic Theology of St. Luke,
Massachusetts, Hendrickson, 1985, p. 2-5
4. Acts 2:4, Acts 2:44-45, New Revised Standard
Murray, Christian Social Concern in Pentecostal Perspective:
Reformulating Pentecostal Eschatology in Journal of
Pentecostal Theology, Cleveland, Sheffield Academic Press,
Issue two, 1993, p. 52-53
Donald, Theological Roots of Pentecostalism,
Massachusetts, Hendrikson, 1987, p. 102-103
Jeffery T., Beyond the Individual and into the World: A
call to Participation into the Larger Purposes of the Spirit on the
Basis of Pentecostal Theology, Pneuma, the Journal of the Society
for Pentecostal Studies, Vol 14, #1 Spring 1992, p. 45-46
Douglas J., For Such a Time as this: The story of William
J. Seymour and the Azusa Street revival, a Search for Pentecostal
Charismatic Roots, unpublished dissertation, University of
Birmingham, England, May 1981
9. The Apostolic Faith, November 1906, vol. 1, #3,
p. 1, column 2
10. The Apostolic Faith, September 1906, p. 1,
Cecil M., Historical Roots of Racial Unity and Division
in American Pentecostalism, paper presented at Pentecostal
Fellowship of North American Racial Reconciliation conference,
Jr. Theodore, Bishop C.H. Mason and the Church of God in
Christ during World War I: The perils of conscientious objection,
in Southern Studies, Winter, 1987 p. 261-281
Charles, A Period of History in the Church of God in
Christ, Memphis, 1956, COGIC Publishing, p. 91
14. Ibid, p. 17
Aimee Semple in The Dictionary of Pentecostal and
Charismatic Movements, Stanley M. Burgess and Gary B. McGee,
editors, Michigan, Regency Zondervan, 1988, p. 569-571
Aimee, quoted in The Bridal Call, cited by Townsend, Gregg,
in The Material Dream of Aimee Semple McPherson: A Lesson
in Pentecostal Spirituality, Pneuma, volume 14, #2, Fall 1992,
17. Ibid, p. 179
Edith, Aimee Semple McPherson: Everybody's Sister,
Michigan, Eerdmans, 1993, p. 269
Fellowship of North America, Dictionary of Pentecostal
and Charismatic Movement, p. 703
Anthea, Walls of Division: Racism's Role in Pentecostal
History, in Society for Pentecostal Studies Papers, 1994,
Annual meeting, p. 16-17.
21. Horn, J.
Nico, South African Pentecostals and Apartheid, in
Pentecost, Mission and Ecumenism, Festschrift in honor of Walter J.
Hollenweger, Jan. Jongeneel, ed. 1992, Frankfurt am Main, p.
Frank, No Life of My own, Orbis books, New York,
1988, p. 41
23. Yoo, Boo
Woong, , Korean Pentecostalism, its History and Theology,
Peter Lang, New York, 1988, p. 198
24. Ibid, p. 193-195
25. Ibid, p. 204-205
26. Alexander, Bobby C. Victor Turner
Revisited, Ritual as Social Change, Scholars Press, Atlanta,
27. Winston, Diane, Progressions, a Lilly
endowment occasional report, The Black Church in America, Vol
4, Issue 1, Feb. 1992, p. 4
28. The House of the Lord Pentecostal Church
Statement of Faith, The concept, Section II.
29. Alexander, Victor Turner Revisited,
30. Alexander, p. 95-99
31. Alexander, p. 102
Dayton, The Theological Roots of Pentecostalism. (Peabody,
MA: Hendrikson Publishers, 1987) argues that theologically,
Pentecostalism has close ties with 19th century Wesleyan Holiness
33. Edith L.
Blumhofer, The Assemblies of God: A Chapter in the Story
of American Pentecostalism, (Springfield, MO: Gospel Publishing
House, 1989) pp. 50ff., notes the role of revivalism of D.L. Moody
and others who tended to be Congregationalists, Baptists and
Presbyterians as a formative influence on Pentecostalism in this
34. Blumhofer notes four aspects of this outlook
which were determinative for Pentecostalism: 1) It was
"...closely related to the hope of perfection and the call for
religious reform, " 2) it "...promoted assumptions of
Christian unity and simplicity," 3) "...serious grappling
with eschatological issues accompanied American interest in
Restorationism." and 4) "...restorationist expectations
both occasioned and supported antidenominationalism." op. Cit.
pp. 18-19. For the topic under discussion in this paper, the third
issue is our focus.
35. The terms were taken from Joel 2.
36. Not all
Pentecostals are so negative. While there is not time to pursue it,
one would expect that those Pentecostals in Wesley's lineage might
be more open to social concerns if post-millenialism is the
"social correlate" of the doctrine of sanctification. Even
here, though, premillenial eschatology had found a place in Wesleyan
thought by the mid 1890's (Dayton, op. cit. P. 165).
This negativity may also reflect the social location of
Pentecostalism as sectarian, outside and over against the mainstream
37. While this story functions to demonstrate the
concern of later Pentecostals to be orthodox and biblical in their
doctrine, it is interesting to note that Parham himself was not
overly concerned with doctrine. When some of his teachings were
challenged because of "doctrinal innovations" he replied,
"Truly spiritual people do not quibble over tenets and points
of doctrine; it is a sign of waning spirituality to do so."
(Quoted in Blumhofer, p. 87.)
38. Ralph M.
Riggs' book The Spirit Himself. (Springfield, MO:
Gospel Publishing House, 1949) reflect this concern. The following
comments are illustrative: Before the bar of public opinion, the
Pentecostal people have been arraigned by their fellow religionists
of modern days. Like Paul they answer, "After the most
straitest sect of our religion we have lived (Acts 26:5). Are they
Christians? So are we. Are they Protestants? So are we. Are they
sincere, devout, and in the worship of the Lord Jesus Christ...? We
(we speak foolishly) are more so. cf. 2 Cor. 11:22,23." To
those who are believers but not Pentecostal, he concludes his
introduction: "We commend to their consideration the study of
the Holy Spirit which follows. We ask only that they search the
Scriptures to see if these things be so." (pp. xii-xiv)
39. William W.
Menzies, Anointed to Serve. (Springfield, MO: Gospel
Publishing House, 1971) p. 40. Note the previous citation of Ralph
Riggs's book published late in that decade. Menzies' use of the term
"evangelical" needs to be understood in the American
context rather than European. Evangelical means
"Protestant" in Europe; in America it means something like
"conservative" as contrasted with "liberal".
Institutionally this tends to be reflected in the distinction
between the National Association of Evangelicals and the National
Council of Churches.
testimony of the Spirit is more excellent than all reason. For as
God alone is a fit witness of himself in his Word, so also the Word
will not find acceptance in men's hearts before it is sealed by the
inward testimony of the Spirit. The same Spirit, therefore, who has
spoken through the mouths of the prophets must penetrate into our
hearts to persuade us that they faithfully proclaimed what they had
been divinely commanded." Calvin, John Institutes of
the Christian Religion. (John T. McNeill, ed. And Ford Lewis
Battles, trans.) (Library of Christian Classics, vol. XX
Philadelphia, PA: Westminster Press, 1960), p. 79
41. Charles Greenaway, missionary and minister in
the Assemblies of God, quoted frequently by Richard B. Foth, former
president of Bethany Bible College.